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实木地板的含水率、干燥目的、干燥方法

SHIMUDIBANTONGCHANGCAIYONGYINGKUOYESHUCUN,ZHONG、GAODANGSHIBENDIBANZHUYAOCAIYONGYOUZHIJINKOUCAI。BIJIAOHELIDESHENGCHANFANGSHISHIXIANJIANGYUANMUZAICHANDIJIAGONGCHENGDIBANPIBANCHENGPIN,BINGJINXINGBANDUANLAFENG,YIFANGZHIDUANLIE,RANHOUXIAOWANGDIBANJIAGONGCHANGJINXINGRENGONGGANZAOHOU,ZAIJIAGONGWEICHENGPINDIBAN。

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1 常用木材干燥方法及其适用条件

CHANGYONGDEMUCAIGANZAOFANGFAYOU:ZHENGQIJIARECHANGGUIGANZAO,LUQIJIARECHANGGUIGANZAO,REFENGGANZAO,CHUSHIGANZAO,ZHENKONGGANZAO,YIJIJINNIANLAILIUXINGDERESHUIYUGAOWENSHUIXUNHUANJIAREDECHANGGUIGANZAODENG。BIXUGENJUSHIBENDIBANDEGANZAOTEDIANHEYAOQIU,YIJIQIYEDEGUIMOHETIAOJIANDENG,XUANZEHESHIDEGANZAOFANGFA。

1.1 蒸汽加热常规干燥

GAIFASHIYONGBIAOYALIP<=0.4MPaDEBAOHESHUIZHENGQI,TONGGUOJIAREQIJIAREGANZAOJIAONEIXUNHUANKONGQIGANZAOJIEZHILAIGANZAOMUCAIDECHUANTONGGANZAOFANGFA。QIYOUDIANSHIGONGYICANSHURONGYIKONGZHI,GANZAOZHILIANGYIBANJIAOHAO;WEN、SHIDUKEDIAOKONGFANWEIJIAOKUAN,KEGANZAOGEZHONGYONGCAI;BINGKEJIZHONGGONGRE,YINGYONGBIJIAOPUBIAN。QUEDIANSHIXUYAOZHENGQIGUOLU,TOUZIFEIYONGJIAOGAO;BINGFAZHUYAOLIYONGZHENGQIDEQIHUAQIANRE,LENGNINGSHUIYINHUISHOUMAFAN,WANGWANGWEIYULIYONGERZAOCHENGLANGFEIHEZENGJIACHENGBEN。ZHUYAOSHIYONGYUSHENGCHANGUIMOJIAODAHUOYOUXIANCHENGDEZHENGQIKEGONGSHIYONGDEQIYE,YOUQISHIYONGYUGANZAOZHENYECAIHERUANKUOYECAIHUOBOBANDENGYIGANCAIZHONG。DUIYUZHONG、XIAOXINGMUDIBANQIYE,YINGAIFAXUANGGUIDEZHENGQIGUOLUERBUSHENSHIYONG。

1.2 炉气加热常规干燥

ZHEISHIYONGRANSHAOFEIMULIAOZHIJIEHUOJIANJIEJIAREDEMUCAICHANGGUIGANZAOFANGFA。ZHIJIEJIAREDELUQIGANZAOHUIXUNHEIMUCAIBINGYISHIHUO,GUJIHUYIBUCAIYONG。JIANJIEJIAREDELUQIGANZAOYOUDUOZHONGFANGSHI:①JIANYIHUOKANGSHI:LUZAOHELUQIGUANDAOBUZHIZAIHUOKANGFANGDIXIA,CAIDUIZHIYUHUOKANGFANGNEI,KAORESHIQILIUZIRANXUNHUANGANZAO。ZHEISHIBIJIAOYUANSHIDETUFAGANZAO,CHANGHUIBAMUCAIHONGHUAIHUOFASHENGHUOZAI。JIANYIBUYONG。②XIAOXINGHUOLUHONGXIANGSHI:ZHEISHIZAIYIGELEISIYUJIZHUANGXIANGDEJINSHUQIAOTINEIDEYICE,ZHUANGYOUMUFEILIAORANSHAOLUJIQILUQIGUANDAOHEJIANYIFENGSHANDEXIAOXINGGANZAOQI,KEZHUANGMULIAO2~5LIFANGMI。GAIFAGANZAOYETONGYANGCUNZAIANQUANYINHUAN,RONGYIKAOHUAIMUCAIHUOFASHENGHUOZAI,BINGYINQIQILIUXUNHUANBUHELI,GANZAOBUJUNYUN。JIANYIBUYONG。③XIANDAILUQIJIANJIEJIAREGANZAOYAO:JIAONEIYOUSHEJIHEBUZHIHELIDELUQIJIAREGUANZU,QITAPEIZHIYUYIBANGANZAOYAOXIANGTONG。RUSHUZHUANJIASHEJIDEZHEIZHONGYAO,ANQUANXINGHEKEKAOXINGSHIYOUBAOZHENGDE。ZHEILEIYAODEZHUANYONGRANSHAOLUKESHEZAIYAOWAI,YEKESHEZAIYAONEI,QIANZHEXIANGDUIGENGANQUAN,DANFEIYONGHERESUNSHIYEXIANGDUIJIAOGAO。

LUQIJIARECHANGGUIGANZAOYINBUXUYAOZHENGQIGUOLU,BINGLIYONGMUFEILIAONENGYUAN,TOUZIFEIYONGDI、GANZAOCHENGBENDI。DANYINWEN、SHIDUNANYIDIAOJIEKONGZHI,GANZAOZHILIANGBUYIBAOZHENG。RUOGANZAOYAOSHEJIBUHAO,HAIYIHONGHUAIMUCAIHEFASHENGHUOZAI。DUIYUZHONG、GAODANGSHIMUDIBAN,ZHEIZHONGGANZAOFANGFAYINGSHENYONG。

1·3 热风干燥

YONGYUJIAREDEREFENGLUSHEZAIYAOWAI,YOUJIN、HUIQIGUANDAOYUGANZAOYAOXIANGLIAN。KONGQIGANZAOJIEZHIJINGHUIFENGGUANDAORENYAOWAIREFENGLUJIAREHOU,ZAIYOUGUFENGJISONGHUIYAONEI,SHIYIZHONGQILIUSHUANGXUNHUANDECHANGGUIGANZAO。GAIFADEQUEDIANSHIRENENGLIYONGLVDI;DONGLIXIAOHAODA;YAONEIWEN、SHIDUCHANGFENBUBUJUN,GONGYICANSHUBUYIDIAOKONG,GANZAOSUDUMANQIEBUJUNYUN;HUIFENGGUANDAOJIGUFENGJIYIFUSHI;GANZAOYAORONGLIANGXIAO,DANWEICHANLIANGDEBIZAOJIAGAODENG。JIANYIBUCAIYONG。

1.4 除湿干燥

是用工业除湿机域称为热泵)将窑内的空气干燥介质逐渐除湿并适当加热来进行干燥木材的方法。工业除湿机只能在设定的温度范围工作,才有除湿效果。普通除湿干燥机的工作温度不超过55C,中温除湿干燥机的工作温度也不超过 65 C。该法的优点是使用电能没有污染;容易操作,干燥质量一般较好。缺点是使用电能干燥成本高;干燥时间长,生产率低;工业除湿机易发生故障,维修费用高,使用寿命短;没有调湿装置,不能消除干燥应力等。由于其干燥动力主要靠降低干燥介质的相对湿度而不是提高温度,故在高含水率阶段或干燥易干树种时作用较明显,而在低含水率阶段或干燥难干树种时作用则不明显。然而,用该法干燥易干树种或当含水率较高时,又嫌干燥太慢,有时会导致木材长霉。建议木地板企业不采用,除非产量很低且对环保有特殊要求。

1·5 真空干燥

BEIGANMUCAIZHIYUMIFENGDERONGQINEI,JINGYUREHOUCHOUCHURONGQINEIDEKONGQI,SHIMUCAIZAIYIDINGFUYATIAOJIANXIAGANZAO。GAIFAGANZAOJIAOKUAI,GANZAOZHILIANGBUYIBAOZHENG;GANZAOQIZHUANGZAILIANGXIAO,SHEBEIYOUJIAOFUZA,TOUZIFEIYONGGAO;SHIYONGDIANNENG,GANZAOCHENGBENGAO。ZHIYOUDUISHAOLIANGNANYUCUN,DANGYONGCHANGGUIGANZAOXIANSHIJIANTAIZHANGSHI,CAIYONGZHENKONGGANZAOCAISHIKEXINGDE。YIBANDEMUDI。

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